Krishna khanna was a great freedom fighter and a revolutionary who is closely associated Hindustan republication association. Hindustan republication association was a revolutionary organization which was established in the year 1928 at New Delhi by Chandrasekhar azad, bhagat Singha and others.
Prem Krishna khanna was one of the great revolution activists who actively participated in this revolutionary organization and served for the freedom of this nation. He was famous for his association with Ram Prasad Bismil and Ashfaqualla khan. Krishana khanna was one among the nine associates who was under the leadership of Bismil.
Early life of Prem Krishna Khanna
He was born on 2nd January 1894 in Lahore now in Pakistan. He was a single child to his parents. Prem Krishna khanna belongs to a rich family. His father was Ram Krishna khanna who worked as a chief divisional Engineer of Indian railways shahjahanpur. Ram Krishna khanna was honored with the crown of raibahadur by the british government for his honesty and diligent discharge work.
He was born at the time when his father was posted to Lahore. Prem was brought up by his parents in different places. From his childhood he was too much passionate in reading. Krishna khanna started reading the books of seditious nature pertaining to the history of different revolution instead of reading his course books. Krishna khanna was active in politics and congress.
Krishna khanna’s license for mauser pistol
Krishna khanna was a rich person. His father was having prestigious name among the british authorities. His father was the only reason to get contract from the railway authorithies. Prem Krishna khanna’s started his first work as a contractor for railway.
The work which he was doing in railway had the life risk from decoits and thieves. So Krishna khanna got the arms license for the mauser pistol for his personal security. In those days Mauser pistol was considered as the best weapon. This pistol was helpful for his self protection as well as to do all kinds of revolutionary actions.
Krishna khanna as a revolutionary activist with Ram Prasad Bismil
Krishna Khanna got more patriotic feel after reading many revolutionary books. He joined the revolutionary organization which was named as Hindustan republican association. Pandit ram Prasad Bisil was a person who always searches for fire arms and ammunition. Bismil contacted Prem Krishna khanna and allowed him to join the associates which were headed by bismil. Khanna built a close relationship with Ram Prasad Bismil.
Krishna khanna in Kokri conspiracy and his death
Krishna khannna vigorously participated in the revolutionary activities which were organized by Ram Prasad bismil and other members of Hindustan republican association. On 9the august 1925, Bismil and his revolutionary associates planned to rob the government treasury which was transported in the 8th Down sharanpur – Lucknow passenger train by British.
Majority of the members who participated in this work were caught by british police and sentenced to death including Lahir, Bismil and khan. He lived for the welfare of freedom fighter when he remained as a president of Uttar Pradesh. But Prem Krishna Khanna was punished with 5 years imprisonment. He died on 3 august just 6 months before his 100th birthday.
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, born on November 11, 1888 in Mecca, was a distinguished scholar, a great poet, a true freedom fighter and independent India’s first Education Minister. He was the son of Maulana Khaiiruddin and Aliyah. His father left India during Sepoy Mutiny and settled in Mecca. In 1890, he along with his family returned to India and settled down in Calcutta.
Maulana Azad pursued traditional Islamic education at home and learned many different languages. He was imbued with the pan-Islamic spirit and visited many places like Afghanistan, Iraq, Egypt, Syria and Turkey.
In these places he met many exiled revolutionaries, patriotic leaders, freedom fighters and other political members who influenced Azad with their revolutionary activities. He then imbibed patriotism and was metamorphosed into a nationalist revolutionary.
After returning back to India, he joined the revolutionary movement under Aurbindo Ghosh and Sri Shyam Sunder Chakravarthy. He also opened secret revolutionary centers all over North India and in Bombay. Azad convinced the Muslim revolutionaries to fight for India’s freedom rather than fighting for anti-Muslim causes.
In 1912, he started a weekly journal to propagate Indian nationalism and revolutionary ideas based on Hindu-Muslim unity. This weekly proved to be a threat to British Empire and so he was expelled from Calcutta in 1916 and was released in 1920 after the First World War.
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Manmath Nath Gupta (7 Feb 1908 – 26 Oct 2000) was an Indian activist writer and biographer of autobiographical, historical and fictional books in Hindi, English and Bengali. He was a dynamic member of the Hindustan Republican Association and tied up the Indian independence movement at the age of 13.
Disappointed with congress
He joined the Congress as a volunteer worker but he was dissatisfied with the tardiness of the work and its inability in producing any short term results. When Mahatma Gandhi called off the Non-Cooperation Movement after the incident at Chauri Chaura in 1922, Gupta was severely disappointed with the Congress and Gandhi.
He later joined the Hindustan Republican Association quitting from congress, a group of young revolutionaries whose aim was to end the British rule of India, by aggressive means if it was necessary.
Kakori train robbery
He played a part in the well-known Kokoris train robbery in 1925.A rail user named Ahmed Ali was murdered in this exploit by the bullet fired by Manmath Nath Gupta and was behind bars for 14 years as he was teenager so he was not sentenced to death. He started writing against the British Government, on free from prison in 1937.
He was verdict all over again in 1939 and was free in 1946 very soon a year previous to the India’s independence in 1947. He had written numerous manuscripts on the olden times of the Indian struggle for independence from a revolutionary’s point of view, including They Lived Dangerously – Reminiscences of a Revolutionary.
Subsequent to independence
Including Yojna he was associated to the Indian Ministry of Information and Broadcasting and edited the Planning Commission’s prestigious publications. He was also the editor of Bal Bharti, a children’s magazine, and Aajkal, a Hindi literary magazine.
In the International Symposium on India and World Literature (IWL) at Vigyan Bhavan, Manmath Nath Gupta was also present as an Indian delegate, New Delhi on 27 Feb 1985 which was organized by the Department of Modern European Languages, University of Delhi.
He was greatly delighted when a document on his leader titled as Pt. Ram Prasad ‘Bismil’: A Warrior of Pen & Pistol was to be found before the farm outs.
Great loss on festival of light
His very last discussion on DD National television Channel was broadcasted in India on 19 December 1997, for about 20 minute documentary entitled as Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna. In this interview Manmath Nath Gupta, plead guilty the fault he made on 9 August 1927 when he fired the Mauser accidentally and a passenger was killed in the Kakori train robbery.
Owing to his slip-up, 4 revolutionaries as well as his beloved leader Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil were hanged. Manmath Nath Gupta died in the night of the Indian festival of Deewali on 26 October 2000 at his residence in Nizamuddin East New Delhi. He was 92 and very active right up to his death.
Born on July 19, 1827 in the village of Nagwa, district Ballia, Uttar Pradesh, Mangal Pandey was introduced to Indian history as the first freedom fighter and martyr of 1857. He is popularly named ‘Shaheed Mangal Pandey’ because ‘Shaheed’ means martyr in Urdu and he was the first Indian sepoy who woke up the Indian masses to fight for the nation.
Mangal Pandey, at the age of 22 joined the British East India Company as a soldier in the 34th Regiment of Bengal Native Infantry. He was a true freedom fighter who gave a spark to the First War of Indian Independence. The British termed it as Sepoy Mutiny 1857 as it was a mass revolt of Indian soldiers in the British Army.
The main reason of Sepoy Mutiny was the Pattern 1853 Enfield rifled musket. To load a new rifle, the soldiers had to bite the cartridge and open to pour gunpowder into the rifle’s muzzle. There was a widespread rumor that these cartridges were greased with lard or tallow. Lard is the pork fat which the Muslims regarded as unclean and tallow is the beef fat which the Hindus regarded as sacred.
The British army constituted 96% of Indians and so both the Hindus and the Muslims refused to accept these cartridges. Everyone had a firm belief that this was done intentionally and this discontent turned into a major revolt.
Mass revolt forced Pandey to attack his British sergeant on the parade ground, besides wounding an adjutant. A native soldier stopped him from killing them. The officer in charge ordered a Jamadaar of the troop to arrest Pandey but he refused to do so. Mangal tried to commit suicide to light the flame of nationalism in the hearts of millions of Indians but he failed to do so.
He was then captured and sentenced to death on April 8, 1857 in Barrackpore. March 29, 1857 is considered to be a day when Mangal Pandey reaped the seed for a struggle which gave India her freedom.
Lal Bahadur Shastri, the second Prime Minister of India, was born on October 2, 1904 at Mughalsarai, a railway colony located at seven miles away from Varanasi. He imbibed boldness, courage, selflessness, self-respect and other virtues from his parents Shradha Prasad and Ramdulari Devi.
In 1921, Gandhi Ji launched Non Cooperation Movement and called to the youth to fight for the noble cause of freedom. Shastri was highly influenced by the movement and joined the freedom struggle at the age of 17. He was arrested during the movement but was later released. He then joined Kashi Vidya Peeth and earned the degree of ‘Shashtri’.
After earning this degree, he joined ‘The Servants of the People Society’ that was started by Lala Lajpat Rai in 1921, with the aim to train youth who were resolved to dedicate their lives for the country.
Bahadur Shastri married Lalita Devi in 1927. Being a true follower of Gandhi Ji, he took a spinning wheel and few yards of khadi in dowry. In response to the call of Gandhi Ji, he actively participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement, Salt Stayagraha and Quit India Movement for which he was sentenced to imprisonment several times.
Finally, in 1947 Britishers were forced to quit India. Thereafter, in 1947, he was appointed as Minister of Police and Transport in Pant’s Cabinet and in 1964 as Prime Minister of India.
In 1965, war started between India and Pakistan. During this war, Shastri played a key role in maintaining internal security of the country. He coined a slogan ‘Jai Jawan Jai Kisan’ to bring unity within the country and finally led India to victory. He died on January 10, 1966 at Tashkent after he had signed the Joint Declaration with President Agha Khan of Pakistan.
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Lala Lajpat Rai, popularly known as Punjab Kesari or Lion of Punjab, was born on January 28, 1865 in Jagraon in Ludhiana. He was the eldest son of Munshi Kishan Azad and Gulab Devi who inculcated strong moral values in him. He studied law from Government College in Lahore and thereafter started his legal practice in Hissar.
His political career started in 1888 with the Indian National Congress Session at Allahabad. At the next session at Bombay in 1889, he was linked with other two leading freedom fighters Bipin Chandra Pal and Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
The trio was popularly known as Lal-Bal-Pal. Lalaji was actively involved in struggle against partition of Bengal. During the struggle he galvanized Indians for a campaign of Swadeshi and was imprisoned for six months for creating turmoil.
After his release in 1907, he went to Britain in April 1914 to explain the position of India. During his stay in Britain, the First World War broke out but he was unable to return. So, he went to USA for promoting the cause of India’s freedom struggle.
There he founded the India Home League Society of America. He returned to India in 1920 and formed the Congress Independence Party in protest against the Jalianwala Bagh Massacre and Non Cooperation Movement.
In 1928, Simon Commission that came to India to discuss constitutional reforms was protested by Lalaji because the commission had no Indian members. The shrewd Britishers brutally lathicharged Lalaji during the protest and because of severe head injuries he expired on November 17, 1928.
Sinha was the famous freedom fighter who served as the first chief minister of Bihar for long time. Krishna sinha was regarded among the “Architects of Modern Bihar”. In the political circle of Bihar, Sinha was popularly known as Bihar Kesari. He was elected as chief minister from the time of first congress ministry till his death in the year 1937.
He was a great chief minister of Bihar who focused a lot in abolishing Zamindari system. It was sinha who led Dalit’s entry into the Bhaidyanath Temple to engage in the work for the growth and social empowerment of Dalit. He was known for his scholarship and eradication where he had given his personal collections of 17,000 books to the public liabrary at munger in 1959. Later on the library was named after him as Shri Krishna seva sadan.
Personal details of Krishna Sinha
Sinha was born on 21st October 1887 in Khanwa, Bihar. He belongs to respectful Middle class Bhumihar Brahmin family. Krishna Sinha’s father was a religious person. His mother was also a religious minded person who died of plague when sinha was five years old. He completed his education Zilla School in Mongyr.
In his school days, sinha was more talented boy who showed his capabilities as a leader. He obtained his graduation in degree of law from Patna University. After his education, sinha got married. He had two sons whose names were shivashankar Singh and Bandhishankar Singh. His second son was commonly known as Swaraj Babu who was later led into various post of state Ministry.
Political life of Krishna
After completing his graduation in Law, Sinha started his legal practice in 1921. Mahatma Gandhi invited Krishna Sinha to join non cooperation movement. With respond to the call of Gandhi, Sinha joined non cooperation movement and got practice in 1921. With his popular political name Bihar Kesari actively participated in political works.
For his active participation, he was arrested and imprisoned by the British government in the year 1922. Sinha was released from the jail after eight years and vigorously took part the ‘salt satyagrah’ at Garhpura. In 1937, Sinha was elected as the member of Bihar cabinet. Mahatma Gandhi was highly influenced with the leadership qualities of sinha and gave him the title ‘the first satyagraha of Bihar’.
Sinha was also elected as the member of the constituent Assemble of India. Sinha was great freedom fighter who raised his voice against caste system and supported the oppressed.
Legacy of Sinha
Sinha was joined with the pair of Shree babu and A N Sinha to do all the development projects which is required for the state of Bihar. Krishna Sinha was involved in several river valley projects like koshi, aghaur and sakri to other river projects.
He was participating in the first five year plan period which was given for the rural development of agricultural sectors. He had huge contribution in the social and cultural development of the state.
Death of Sinha
Sinha was a great political leader who dedicated his entire life for the freedom struggle of this nation. Krishna Sinha continued as chief minister till his death. He was died on 31st January 1961 in Bihar.
Khudiram Bose was born on December 3, 1889 in the village Medinipur of Bengal. He was the son of Trailokyanath Basu and Lakshmipriya Devi. He was one among the youngest revolutionaries of India’s freedom struggle.
Khudiram had always lived a virtuous and generous life. Since childhood he was fond of the sacred words of Vande Matram and in later years got inspired by the notions of karma and norms of Bhagvad Gita. During the partition of Bengal, discontent and anger against the Britishers compelled him to get involved in revolutionary activities.
He was resolved to free India from the rule of British Empire. To learn more about the revolutionaries and their activities he joined Jugantar – the party of revolutionaries.
Bose, at the age of 16, threw the first bomb over the British who were crushing India. He had planted these bombs near the police station where many officials were killed.
Further, he was arrested for placing a series of bomb but that was not the end. He along with his friend again planned to throw a bomb to assassinate the Chief Presidency Magistrate Kingsford who was known to make brutal and blatant judgments against freedom fighters.
Khudiram was arrested on the charges of bomb attack and was sentenced to death on August 11, 1908. He died with the holy book Bhagwad Gita in his hands and amiling with the slogan Vande Matram on his lips.
Nazrul was a national poet of Bangladesh who pioneered the poetic works with the intension of spiritual rebellion against fascism and oppression. Kazi Nazrul Islam was a poet and musician who started revolutionizing the different style of Bengali music and literature. The poetry of Nazrul includes vibrant rhythms and iconoclastic themes which created a striking contrast to the poetry of Rabindranath Tagore.
He used the different subjects and vocabulary which is never used in any Bengali poetry before. Nazrul was one of the colorful personalities in Bengal. He was a multitalented personality who is versatile as a poet, musician, lyricist and writer.
Nazrul is great poet who fought against communalism, imperialism, fundamentalism and exploitation of British government. He earned the prestigious name of “rebel poet” for the brave confrontation towards all the repressions.
Early life of kazi nazrul islam
Nazrul was born 24th may 1899 in the village of churulia in the burdwan district of Bengal. He belongs to a powerful Muslim Taluqdar family. Kazi nazrul islam was the second among the three son and a daughter. Nazrul’s father was an imam and care taker of local mosque whose name is Kazi Faqeer Ahmed. His mother was Zahida Khatun.
He had two brothers whose names are Kazi Saahibjaan and Kazi Ali Hussain. Nazrul sister was umme kulsum. Nazrul father was so poor. His father died when he was nine years old. After his father’s death, nazrul began working as a caretaker in the place of his father to support his family.
Soon after he worked as a teacher in the village of maktab and finally joined a leto group who is a musical troupe. He soon became the poet of the group and started his poetry and composing of music from that troup. He got married with Nargis Begam of Comillia when he was in early 20s.
At the time of First World War in 1977, nazrul joined in the Bengal regiment of the British Indian army. Kazi nazrul islam was stayed in army for two and half years. He started his work as an ordinary soldier and later turned into a havildar. Nazrul began doing lots of literary activities when he was posted in karatchi cantontment.
He practiced his favorite music with other soldiers who love music. Simultaneously he focused more on other literary activities like prose and poetry which are published in various literary magazines.
Nazrul after becoming Rebel poet
Nazrul continued his literary work of poetry staying in army. He started publishing his poetry in weekly magazine. His first poem “Dhumketu” was published on 12th august 1922. Later on nazrul became a national poet of Bangladesh. He was rewarded with a name of “rebel poet” who was famous for revolutionary poems in Bengali.
Awards earned by Nazrul
Nazrul was awarded with Jagattarini gold medal in the year 1945 by the University of Calcutta for his extraordinary work in Bengali literature. Kazi nazrul islam got the padma bhushan award in 1960. He was honoured with the title of national poet and Ekushey padak by the government of Bangladesh. Nazrul died on 29th august 1976 due to long illness.
Sharma was a prominent freedom fighter and pleasant revolutionary leader who conducted several movements against zamindar and the British government of India. Karyanand Sharma was a person who actively participated in Non cooperation movement under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian national congress party. He was involved in various kinds of pleasant issues as a member of revolutionary group.
Personal life of Karyanand Sharma
He was born in sahoor village of mongyr district in the year 1901. The exact date of birth of Sharma was unknown to everyone. He belongs to a poor tenant Bhumihar Brahmin family. He began his studies in the early age.
Karyanand Sharma was in a position to leave the school in order to support his family in farming and cultivation. Later on he continued his education from the year 1914 and passed his matriculation examination successfully in 1920.
Revolutionary activities of Sharma
After completing his education successfully, Sharma vigorously participated in the Non cooperation Movement to fight against the British rule in India. Karyanand Sharma was a great inspiration of every Indian citizen even today. Most of the young freedom fighter and revolutionary who joined Indian national congress was highly inspired with his contribution to the nation.
He was under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi and Indian national congress. As a result of Sharma’s participation in Indian national congress, he was arrested by the British Indian police and was sentenced to exact imprisonment for a period of one year. As soon as he was released from jail, Sharma showed more involvement in various issues of the peasant.
In the year 1927, he conducted a resistance of tenants against the arbitrary extortions by the zamindars at chanan. This resistance of tenants was particularly aimed to fight against the Giddhaur Raj and Kaira estate. The Zamindar and their subordinates of these states were predominantly oppressive.
The leader of Indian national congress supported Sharma even though the party leaders didn’t provide any direct help to him. But there were unity among the tenants which made the Zamindars to surrender to the demands of peasants.
Karyanand’s participation in Kisan movement
The struggle between the peasant and Zamindar were solved successfully. This trimph became a great motivational factor for the peasants in Monghyr. Stictures were passed against Pandit Karyanand Sharma after the popular Barahiya Bhakshat Andolan which was conducted in1937-1939. Sharma was arrested by government of India in 1938.
After coming out from the jail, he aggressively participated in Kisan Movement. As soon as he participated in Kisan movement he was arrested again. Ultimately Sharma became a follower of Marxist ideologies and a member of the communist party of India. He remained as a member of All India congress committee till the year 1943.
After the nation achieved independence from the British rule in India, Sharma became one of the foremost leaders of the communist party of India. Under the leadership of Karyandand Sharma, the communist party of India was able to wage many significant struggles during the 1950s. He was also a member of legislative party till his death. He died in the year 1965.