Caste system in IndiaJun 22 2022 India facts Caste
The word caste is derived from the term ‘casba’. It depicts a ranking system of human groups based on hereditary and occupation. The traditional Caste system in India is a rigid mode to compartmentalize society.
The Indian caste system is highly complex. Its functionality in Indian society is highly surprising because it has many drawbacks. The rigid structure of the caste system in India has abided through centuries.
In India caste comprises closed groups, whose members are severely obliged to restrain themselves to certain hereditary occupations. Particular castes are allowed to marry and socialize only within their own groups.
In India an Individuals social status is gauged by his birth. This also serves to determine his caste. Nowhere in the world is caste exhalted to such a degree as in India.
The Indian word for caste is jati. Thousands of jatis are strewn all over India. Each jati has its own governance, customs, traditions, religion, rules and style of living.
The ancients divided Indian society in four groups-namely Brahmans who came from the priestly group of learning, Shatriyas who were the warrior and ruling section of society, Vaishyas who were businessmen, traders and farmers; and Shudras who comprised of laborers and humble peasants. The untouchable or Panchamas were placed below the category of Shudras.
The rigid hierarchy of the Indian caste system has been severely criticized by individuals with a humanitarian vision from India and outside India. Gautam Buddha, Mahavir, Ramananda Maharshi, Kabir, Eknath, Dnyneshwar, Ramanuja, Tukaram, and Sathya Sai Baba all led criticisms of caste system in India in olden times.
Many Christian missionaries and Indian reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Swami Dayananad, Sri Ramkrishna Paramhansa, Vivekanand, Mannathu Padmanabhan, Narayan Guru, Mahatma Gandhi led many crusades against discriminations based on caste in Indian society.
There are multiple effects of caste system in modern India. Metropolitan India has started walking away from the rigidity of the Indian caste system. This is the result of co mingling with other communities, higher education, globalization and economic growth
Economy of IndiaJun 22 2022 India facts Business in India Economy of India
When calculated from the view of purchasing power parity (PPP), the economy of India stands fourth in the world.
However, when measured in terms of U.S.D. exchange rate, India takes the back seat as the tenth largest country.
India has also been declared the second fastest growing economy in the whole world according to a recent survey. It enjoys a GDP growth rate of 9.2%.
The economy weakness of India is however quite clear. This is mainly because India has a very huge population. According to the World Bank criterion, India is considered a weak economy with a per capita income of 3400 $ at PPP.
Indian economy is diverse in nature. This is owing to its vast geographical territory and population. Agriculture gives rise to two-thirds of India’s work force. The service sector is now growing towards an important destination in the Indian economy.
Technology and globalization have revolutionized the Indian economy in recent years. Educated Indians who can speak English are getting absorbed in outsourcing operations for global companies. These companies are harnessing technical talent and customer service operators for their operations abroad.
Unemployment among the youth is now a thing of the past due to the advent of the digital age. This has also opened new avenues of growth for our country in fields like telecommunication, manufacturing, biotechnology, aviation, pharmaceutical and shipbuilding.
To sum up, India is a socialist democracy. The government exercises control over private enterprise while encouraging foreign trade. India is now deliberately marching towards an open economy by opening its doors to global markets. This is a dynamic attempt to grow economically and meet the challenges of a huge and growing population, poverty, illiteracy, ignorance and social inequality.
Business in India
There is today no dearth of business opportunities in India with its economy soaring to the fourth largest position in the world in terms of purchasing power.
The Indian government has implemented a number of policies for the aid of entrepreneurs in starting a business in India. This together with the strong fundamentals of Indian economy earned the 43rd rank for India in the world economic forum’s GCI position for the years 2006 and 2007.
India has emerged as a highly appropriate destination for foreign enterprise. This is primarily due to its intellectual middle class which is emerging gradually, a low wages competitive labour force, rich natural resources, vast geographical terrain, higher disposable incomes and progressive as well as friendly business policies which are also investment friendly.
Business etiquette in India has undergone a big transformation with the advent of globalization. Industrial leaders of India are seen to be introducing vast changes in business policies and practices and their implementation to attract international business into India.
In a nutshell, India is making a progressive journey from privatization to liberalization where business is concerned.
Foreign trade policies in India are committed to attract FDI. The government is making every reasonable effort to sustain and improve the eight percent growth rate.
Indian policy makers and industrialists are employed in offering a healthy and robust economic environment for private and public enterprises in order to remain rooted and grow within the country.
Ancient India ArtJun 21 2022 India facts Ancient India Art
Art in ancient India began with rock paintings done by primitive men and women in their caves. When historians studied the remains of Harappa and Mohenjodaro, they formed an impression of a highly accomplished and intelligent culture.
A heightened sense of aesthetic awareness and accomplished craftsmanship was visible in the architecture and artifacts found during excavations on these sites.
The Harappan seals also revealed a detailed understanding of human and animal anatomy on deep study. The tradition of symbolism in Indian art was also clear from them.
Ancient India figure sculpture art form was first discovered in the famous figure of a dancing girl. This piece of sculpture was recovered through excavations in Mohenjodaro.
The use of symbols in art forms was popular at this time. Symbols were rampantly used as tools of artistic ex-pression to visualize abstract thought and spiritual philosophy.
Ancient Indian temple architecture, murals, sculptures and paintings are also treasures, which mirror the nature of ancient Indian art.
Fire altars, which were erected in temples during the Vedic period, are considered brilliant, in terms of mathematical and astronomical demonstrations. They depict a high degree of intellectual knowledge and aesthetic sensitivity at the same time.
In ancient India, each phase was unique in the field of architecture, painting, literature and art. Different influences both external and internal drove the evolution of Indian art from time to time and place to place.
Hindus, Buddhists, Mughals and the British, all ruled over India in different phases and influenced its art.
Multiple invasions and intercultural exchanges gave Indian art vast scope for change and development.
Ancient Indian religion with its deep-rooted tradition of visual philosophy also shapes its art in a diverse pattern, which was as varied as the Indian landscape. This resulted in a unique art, which was imaginative, humanizing and spiritual.
Ancient IndiaJun 21 2022 India facts Ancient India
India is a 34,000 years old country. Ancient India covered the territories of Pakistan, Bangladesh and the Republic of India.
Ancient Indian history can be broadly divided into the Bronze Age, Indus valley civilization and The Vedic period in the 6th century BC.
Medieval India began in the 7th century, with a series of Muslim conquests.
Ancient India government started with the heads of nomadic tribes being given the designation of kings when they started settling in groups for agricultural purposes. The passage of time saw the growth of large kingdoms.
By the 6th century BC there were 16 Mahajanapadas or kingdoms in ancient India. Many small republics were formed at this time with the elements of the democratic form of governance. The raja (king) heads the judiciary, legislative and executive structures and is appointed many officials or council of ministers as advisors under him.
Ancient Indian culture is old and unique. Ancient India cultures were amazingly diverse because of the vast geographical territory. Every state in India has its unique language, art and life style.
India is the womb of many world big religions like Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism and Buddhism. Indian culture nourishes a vast variety of cultural influences. Indian festivals are fascinating for their rituals, traditions, spiritual philosophy, art, pomp and gaiety.
Ancient India food habits reflected its cultural diversity. Ancient Indian cuisine was a composite mixture of many styles and influences. Each state had its own unique style of cooking and serving food. This was based on the geography of the region.
A combination of these factors has resulted in an exclusive Indian culture – a composite mixture of varying styles and influences. In the case of cuisine for instance, the North and the South are totally different.
Festivals in India are characterized by face painting, color, gaiety, enthusiasm, prayers and rituals. In the realm of music, there are varieties of folk, popular, pop, and classical music. The classical tradition of music in India includes the Karnatak and the Hindustani music.
Ancient India art was very cerebral. Music, painting and the scriptural texts were highly evolved and everything had to be learnt and not written. The language of ancient India was Sanskrit. It was a very evolved language in terms of phonetics.
Ancient Indian art was highly introspective and driven towards the full evolution of human mind and body.
Patanjalis yoga shastra and yoga vidhya are a very good example of this. Ancient India adapted to ornamentation and beauty for a religious life and metaphysical ex-pression. Gods and Goddesses were depicted in all works of ancient Indian art as representing different elements of nature..
Agriculture in IndiaJun 21 2022 India facts Agriculture
India has an agriculture-based economy. 43% of India’s territory remains employed in agricultural activities. Globalization and agriculture in India are both intricately connected to each other as agriculture in India prevails over all other sectors because it plays a pivotal role in the socio-cultural life of its people.
Hence, it is agriculture that is the most influential field as compared to others in India. It is also most affected due to globalization in terms of the export and import of agricultural commodities – a major source of income in India.
Agriculture along with other related fields like forestry and logging provides employment to 60% of India’s population. Agriculture also accounts for 8.56% of the country’s total exports. According to a 2005 survey, agriculture accounts for 18.6% of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product).
Most of the Indian population lives in its villages and thus the contribution of agriculture to Indian economy becomes very important.
Majority of Indians depend on agriculture for their livelihood. Sustainable agriculture in India is in the process of acquiring importance. Sustainable agriculture is defined by the presence of eco-friendly agricultural practices.
It pays attention to conservation of the environment as much as to crop yield. Hence equipment, fertilizers, pesticides, etc used are monitored.
One of the primary agriculture companies in India is Bhartiya Agro Industrial Foundation of Maharashtra. It was created by Manibhai Desai in 1967.
NABARD (National Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development) is a bank, which is employed in encouraging agriculture based economic activities in rural India.
Besides this, the Multi Commodity Exchange (MCX) was founded in 2003 in Mumbai for the upliftment of agricultural economy in the country.
Recently a great telecommunication giant – Bharti Enterprises has forged alliances with Field Fresh and Wal Mart, which are globally acclaimed companies..
Taraknath DasJun 16 2022 Indian fighters for freedom Taraknath Das
Taraknath Das was an important name who was an internationalist scholar and an anti British. He was involved in the activities which were meant to free India and make it independent from the British rule. During his career he has worked as a professor at Columbia University where he taught politics and also he use to go as a visiting faculty in various universities.
To give honour to Taraknath Das contribution there are quite number of foundations which grant money funds to the Indian student who are studying and staying in United States and who has completed one year of graduation work and are further studying to complete their degree.
Life and Education
Born in a lower middle class family Taraknath Das was born in Bengal in 1884. He was born to Kalimohan who worked as a clerk in the Central Telegraph Office. His qualities of great writing made him noticeable by the Barrister P. Mitter who recruited him.
Later Taraknath Daswent to Calcutta for university studies. In his attempt to free India he even tried joining the Vermont Military Academy but was been expelled from their because of his anti British movements. He passed his M.A education and later on completed his PhD from the University of Washington.
Taraknath Das Contributions
Taraknath Das was the founder of the Indian Independence League which is did with the active participation of Panduranga Khankoje. He was even provided funds to start his journal which was called as Free Hindustan and which was published in English language. The journal was been claimed as the First South Asian publication which was done in Canada. In 1907 Taraknath Das established an association which was called as Hindustani Association.
Taraknath Das even founded a boarding school for the children who were Asian Indian immigrant and the school was named as Swadesh Sevak Home. In this school there was special evening classes were conducted for English learning and maths which helped the Indian people to send letters home.
His journal the Free Hindustan was an anti British organ which led to the forming of the Ghadar party and encouraged people. After the rising of 1857 the Ghadar party was the first organized step for the freedom which was violent bid.
Taraknath Das married his friend Mary Keatinge Morse and she was also a founder of the Association which was for discrimination between colored people and the name was National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. In the year 1935 with the support of his wife he opened Taraknath Das Foundation.
The main motive of the foundation was to encourage the educational activities and even to built a cultural relationship between the Asians and the U.S. After eleven years of struggle in the year 1946 his citizenship was once again restored in the U.S.
In 1947 when India got Independence Taraknath Das was muted because of the partition done between India and Pakistan. In 1958 Taraknath Das took his last breath in New York.
Tatia TopeJun 16 2022 Indian fighters for freedom Tatia Tope
Tatia Tope, like other freedom fighters, was one of the great heroes who fought courageously for India’s freedom in 1857. He was born in 1814 in a village Yeola in Maharashtra. His father Pandurang Rao Tope shifted with Peshwa to Bithur. Tantia and the adopted sons, Nana Sahib and Maharaja Madhav, of Peshwa became good friends. All his loved ones called him Tatia because he always used to wear a hat that was gifted to him by Peshwa.
Tatia moved his first step against the British in 1851, when Lord Dalhousie deprived Nana Sahib of his father’s pension. In May 1857, he joined the political movements and established Nana Sahib’s authority. Britishers were trying to grab everything- the wealth, kingdom and the whole empire of the country. This became the biggest reason of discontent and revolt. He occupied Kanpur and then shifted to Kalpi to join Rani Lakshmi Bai to occupy Gwalior.
Unfortunately, they lost the battle, Rani was killed and Britishers expanded their rule in Gwalior. After losing, he collected a huge force to fight against Britishers and was successful in capturing many forts of India. In Kalpi, he had established a center to manufacture arms. When he came to know that Britishers are short of resources, he took advantage of it and confronted Kanpur. Altogether, he fought 150 battles.
Tantia, the name of terror for the English, was the one who shook the established niche of the British Empire. He was constantly fighting to win over the whole of India but unfortunately he was betrayed by one of his friend. Britishers caught hold of him and hung him to death on April 18, 1859. This incident brought tears in all eyes and he became the Supreme Commander of India’s independence.
Sukhdev ThaparJun 16 2022 Indian fighters for freedom Sukhdev Thapar
Sukhdev Thapar born on 15th May, 1907 in Ludhiana, Punjab, Sukhdev Thapar played a prominent part in India’s struggle for freedom. He was the son of Sh. Ram Lal and Smt. Ralli Devi. He was a revolutionary and made use of revolutionary tactics to teach lessons to the British government officials.
Role in freedom movement
Sukhdev was a popular member of HSRA (Hindustan Socialist Republican Association). In order to make nationalism more popular among the masses, he and a few other revolutionaries launched an organization named Naujawan Bharat Sabha in 1926.
His nationalist activities impressed the younger generation of India. When he was imprisoned in 1929 and went on a hunger strike, a large number of youth came forward and joined the freedom struggle. However, the most prominent incident of his life would be the shooting of J.P Saunders, who was the Assistant Superintendent of Police.
The assassination was actually meant for James A Scott. However, because of confusion Saunders was shot. The murder was organised in a response to the untimely death of Lala Lajpat Rai, who had been brutally beaten up and had died because of the injuries. After killing Saunders, Sukhdev successfully escaped. However, in April 1929, he bombed the Central Legislative Assembly and let himself be caught and imprisoned.
For the murder of Saunders, he was executed by hanging along with his accomplices – Rajguru and Bhagat Singh on 23rd March, 1931. The execution was actually scheduled for 24th March but because of wide protests, the government advanced the date.
He was hanged after dark and his body was cremated in complete secrecy. His ashes were unceremoniously deposited in the river Sutlej. In fact, his relatives had not been informed about the change of date nor were they allowed to visit him prior to his hanging.
Flaws in execution
The execution was done in haste. Never before had the British government hanged anyone after dark. Moreover, as opposed to the British government’s law, no magistrate had watched over the hanging. Post execution, his body was not taken away for cremation through the prison’s front gate. Rather, the jail authorities demolished a back wall to transport the body. Because of the abovementioned acts, the British government suffered massive criticism.
Praised by Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi supported non-violent ways of protest. Yet, when Sukhdev was scheduled to be hanged, Mahatma Gandhi sought to discuss the matter with the then Viceroy. Unfortunately, nothing positive came out of the discussion. Later on, after his demise, Mahatma Gandhi wrote in a journal named Young India about how much he valued the feeling of patriotism that Sukhdev and his accomplices had. He also pleaded with the people of India to become patriotic and brave like them.
Impact on India’s freedom movement
Sukhdev had been actively involved in the freedom movement of India until his execution. He had made a special connection with the youth of India. After his death, he began to be considered a martyr and to avenge his death a majority of young Indians joined the freedom movement.
Sucheta KripalaniJun 16 2022 Indian fighters for freedom Sucheta Kripalani
Sucheta Kripalani was one of the greatest women freedom fighter who have lived in the country. She was the first women Chief Minister of a state in India, Uttar Pradesh. She was an active member in the Indian Freedom Movement. She has contributed immense in fighting for the freedom of Indian. She was a very good parliamentarian and was very articulate in the Lok Sabha debates.
Life of Sucheta Kriplani
Sucheta Kriplani was born in the year 1908 in Ambala. Born to a Bengali family she was a daughter of S. N. Majumdar who was a government doctor and nationalist. She completed her education from Indraprastha College and St. Stephen’s College in Delhi. After completing her studies she worked as a lecturer in Banaras Hindu University.
She got married to a activist and socialist Acharya Kriplani in 1936 and her political life started after her marriage. She then became involved in Indian National Congress.
Her contributions Freedom Struggle
Sucheta Kriplani was influenced by Mahatma Gandhi and she joined the Kasturba Gandhi Memorial Trust in the year 1946 as Organizing Secretary. She was an active member and came in forefront during the Quit India Movement and the partition riots.
She also got elected to the Constituent Assembly and sang the national song in the Independence session of Constituent Assembly. She even worked for atrocities and became a real mother of them.
Sucheta Kripalani was elected in the Lok Sabha in the year 1952 to 1957. She also was a minister of state for small scale industries. In 1962 Sucheta was elected to the U.P Assembly.
First Woman Chief Minister in India
Being the first woman to be the Chief Minister of India she served from 1963 to 1967. She was known for being a firm administrator. Sucheta Kriplani in her tenure was marked as a fair and transparent person. The first ever strike by the state employees which went on for 62 days took place in her regime.
When Dada Kriplani resigned as Congress president due to the differences with Jawaharlal Nehru, Sucheta Kriplani joined the Congress after the split in the Congress in 1969. She took an active part in the student movement which started in the year 1974. Since Sucheta and her husband were from different parties still they were very professional. She always was with her husband taking care of his health and making him comfortable in his movements.
Death of Sucheta Kriplani
She was always careless about her health as she was so immensely involved in politics and social activities. She had met with a serious accident in Simla Hills. After that she got two heart attacks in which she made complete recovery.
With great devotion she took care of her sick husband and never bothered about her cardiac problems. She died of massive heart attack. It was so severe that she had to be shifted to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences. She passed away on 1st December, 1974 following a massive coronary attack.
Subhas Chandra BoseJun 16 2022 Indian fighters for freedom Subhas Chandra Bose
Popularly known as Netaji, Subhas Chandra Bose was a leader of the masses, who believed in taking extreme action against the British rule. He dedicated his life to freeing his motherland from the foreign rule and even gave up his life for accomplishing this mission.
Childhood and education
He was born in Cuttack (Orissa) on 23rd January, 1897. Janaki Nath Bose, his father, was a lawyer while his mother Prabha Devi was a religious woman. Subhas Chandra Bose proved to be a very bright student and earned high grades in his studies. He was a topper in the matriculation examination.
He graduated from Scottish Churches College, Calcutta with a first class in Philosophy. In 1919, he left for England for taking the civil services examination. He gained 4th position in the examination in 1920. He began his apprenticeship but left it when the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre occurred.
The incident left a deep impact on Netaji. He felt the need to enter the nationalist movement of India. Consequently, in 1921, he returned to his motherland.
His rise to becoming a freedom fighter
At the time, Mahatma Gandhi was working tirelessly towards freeing India and his ideas influenced Subhas Chandra Bose a great deal. He wholeheartedly joined the Indian National Congress. Because of positive qualities, Mahatma Gandhi advised him to work under the guidance of Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das. With his hard work, he soon gained popularity in the Congress and started playing an active role in Congress’s activities.
Contribution towards India’s freedom struggle
Subhas Chandra Bose was a strong-headed personality, who had dreamed of a free India since the time he joined the national freedom movement. That is why on many occasions he opposed the British Acts/policies, which refrained from giving complete independence to India.
For instance in 1928, despite being approved by the Motilal Committee, he along with Jawaharlal Lal Nehru opposed the British Act that promised Dominion Status to India.
As he spent more years in the party, he started having difference of opinion with M.K Gandhi. In 1931, he objected to the Gandhi-Irwin Pact and the subsequent termination of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Indian National Army
Subhas Chandra Bose wanted to weaken the British Government politically. Hence, he exposed India’s poor condition abroad and appealed to the German and Japanese governments, who were against the British, to help him raise an army to bring down the British rule in India. He received full cooperation and in 1941 founded the Indian National Army (INA) in Singapore.
The INA was comprised of Indians, who had been prisoners of war.Soon, the Army started moving towards India and it overthrew British rule in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In 1944, the INA headquarters were relocated in Rangoon, Burma. In the same year, on 18th March, the INA reached India.
Although the INA crossed the Indian border, it did not get an opportunity to fight the British. Actually, both Germany and Japan suffered heavy losses in the Second World War. As a result, in 1944, they had to withdraw their support from the INA. A year later on 18th August, 1945, Subhas Chandra Bose died in a plane crash.
Subash Chandra Bose on 2 rupee 1997